Enggano: Papers, presentations and work in progress
Enggano: Makalah, presentasi dan karya sebelumnya


A diachronic view of Enggano voice alternations : abstract, slides, handout. Charlotte Hemmings, Erik Zobel, and Mary Dalrymple. 25th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, August 2022.

Evidence of contact with Malay/Indonesian in the Enggano language: abstract, slides. Charlotte Hemmings and I Wayan Arka. 25th Symposium on Malay/Indonesian Linguistics, August 2022.

Morphological conservatism in Enggano subordinate clauses. Erik Zobel, Charlotte Hemmings, and Mary Dalrymple. 55th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, August 2022.

Socio-cultural aspects of Enggano linguistic variations: a preliminary observation. I Wayan Arka. Enggano project meeting, Uppsala, July 2022.

Critical ecological factors and Enggano vitality: abstract, slides. I Wayan Arka, Arono, Dendy Wijaya, and Engga Zakaria. 14th International Austronesian and Papuan Languages and Linguistics Conference, June 2022.

The Enggano Project. Charlotte Hemmings. Celebrating Indigenous Languages – Defending Endangered Languages; Marking the 25th anniversary of the Foundation for Endangered Languages & Launching the UN International Decade of Indigenous Languages 2022 - 2032, April 2022.


The phonological history of Nias. Erik Zobel. Towards the next 40 years of Southeast Asian Studies in Frankfurt — Symposium in honour of Prof. Bernd Nothofer, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, December 2021.

The Enggano Language: Nothofer's contribution to solving a linguistic puzzle. Daniel Krauße. Towards the next 40 years of Southeast Asian Studies in Frankfurt — Symposium in honour of Prof. Bernd Nothofer, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, December 2021.

Challenges in Enggano Orthography Development. Charlotte Hemmings, I Wayan Arka, Mary Dalrymple, Engga Zakaria Sangian and Dendi Wijaya. Language Documentation and Linguistic Theory 6, SOAS, London, December 2021.

Perlindungan Bahasa Enggano Perspektif Lokal. [Protection of the Enggano Language: Local Perspective.] Presentation by Engga Zakaria Sangian to the Badan Bahasa, Jakarta, November 2021.

Language Documentation and Orthography Development in the Pandemic: Experiences with Enggano. Mary Dalrymple and Charlotte Hemmings. Presentation at the 3rd International Conference on Educational Sciences and Teacher Profession (ICETeP), University of Bengkulu, November 2021.

"A short overview of Enggano basic morphology and syntax (with comparative and diachronic notes)." Erik Zobel. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the basic morphology and syntax of "Old Enggano" based on Kähler’s grammatical sketch from 1940 and Kähler’s collection Texte von der Insel Enggano (1975), together with diachronic and comparative notes.

"Enggano revisited: The word for 'window'." Bernd Nothofer. In Knowledge, Science, and Local Tradition, edited by Irene Schneider and Holder Warnk. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2021. This paper investigates the etymology of the Enggano word for 'window', bakub ('eye'+'house'), and other metaphorical constructions with the word for 'eye' as their first component.


"Needs analysis in teaching material development for Enggano, an endangered language of Barrier Islands of Indonesia." Arono, Wisma Yunita, Irma Diani, Dedi Sofyan, and Agus Djoko Purwadi, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Bengkulu, Indonesia. The paper presents an initial stage of teaching material development of Enggano, an endangered Austronesian language of the Barrier Islands, off the southern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This study undertakes a needs analysis for the teaching of the Enggano language, taking into account the perspectives from all local stakeholders such as community members (clan elders and parents), teachers, and students. The research is quantitative-qualitative descriptive in nature, with data collected through 5-point scale Likert-type questionnaires, supplemented with follow-up interviews. The results overall show a need average of 3.65, suggesting a clear perceived need for Enggano teaching material development to be used at schools. Such development is a matter of urgency, given the serious level of endangerment of the Enggano language. The study also reveals intriguing socio-psycho-linguistic information of the use of Enggano in contemporary context on the island showing skepticism of the prospect of the use of Enggano in public across different contexts, users (particularly the young generation), media (spoken/written), and domains (domestic vs. non-domestics). The teaching material development is to take into account the needs-related issues found in this study, as part of the plan for the maintenance and revival of the Enggano language.
Keywords: Needs analysis, teaching material, language maintenance, language revival, endangered language

"Challenges in local language policy and regulations for minority speech communities: lessons from Enggano in Bengkulu, Indonesia." Arono, I Wayan Arka, Charlotte Hemmings, and Dendi Wijaya. This paper (in preparation) investigates a range of linguistic and non-linguistic policy-related issues in providing support for local literacy program in Indonesian context, with specific reference to a case study on Enggano.

"Enggano and Austronesian morphosyntax: preliminary findings." I Wayan Arka, Dendi Wijaya and Mary Dalrymple. Accepted for presentation at the Kongres Internasional Masyarakat Linguistik Indonesia (KIMLI2020), Makassar, August 2020. (Not presented due to the coronavirus pandemic.) This paper reports our preliminary findings on the morphosyntax of Enggano.

"Austronesian morphosyntax in Enggano: preliminary findings." I Wayan Arka, Mary Dalrymple and Dendi Wijaya. Accepted for presentation at the 12th International Austronesian and Papuan Languages and Linguistics Conference (APLL12), Oslo, June 2020. (Not presented due to the coronavirus pandemic.) This paper reports our preliminary findings on the morphosyntax of Enggano.

"Language contact and language vitality: evidence from Enggano." I Wayan Arka, Charlotte Hemmings and Arono. Accepted for presentation at Indoling (Indonesian Languages and Linguistics: State of the Field), Atma Jaya University, Jakarta, Indonesia, 16-18 February 2020. (Not presented due to the coronavirus pandemic.) This paper reports on our research on the critical variables involved in the interconnection between language contact and language vitality in Enggano.


"On the competition dynamics and eco-linguistic equilibrium of minority languages: case studies from Indonesia." This is Wayan Arka's keynote talk at the 2019 International Conference on The Austronesian and Papuan Worlds (ICAPaW).
Abstract: I discuss different variables involved in the competition dynamics of eco-linguistic equilibrium affecting the wellbeing of minority languages, based on my documentation research on minority Austronesian and Papuan languages of Indonesia. Extending the notion of ecological equilibrium to include language as part of larger co-existence and mutual interactions of humans with their natural-biological, social-cultural-symbolic, and cognitive ecologies (Haugen 1972, Næss 2008, Chen 2016, among others), I argue for the significance of symbolic social-cognitive variable for a healthy eco-linguistic equilibrium of a minority language. There is good empirical evidence from Loloan Malay (an Austronesian language spoken in western Bali) showing that small population size is not a detriment to the language's well being in the competition dynamics in multilingual setting, and that high language vitality is tightly associated with the identity-related symbolic status of the language. Nevertheless, in the case of Marori (a highly endangered Papuan languge of Merauke) and Enggano (an Austronesian language on Enggano Island, southwest of Bengkulu), the population size with an increasingly dwindling number of speakers is indeed a critical variable, seriously affecting the equilibrium resulting in rapid language shift. In the full paper, I provide further support for the close connection of language's well being, distinctive identities and the speakers' dynamic ecology, and also discuss language advocacy, literacy resources and other strategies mitigating the negative effect of the competition dynamics of languages in contemporary Indonesia.